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荒漠单双中特:高級商務英語文本

Source:     2007-12-22  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  

Managing in the Present
Present Tenses
Focus: time management and current problems facing a service company
1. Management themes
Read the following text and then discuss the questions below.
Time management has become one of the key issues of the second half of the twentieth century. Managers, grappling with work pressures and deadlines, have come to recognise that time is a precious commodity to be 'saved', 'gained', and not 'wasted' or 'lost'. But if time is a commodity, how then can we best describe, measure and manage it?
To describe and manage it, imagine a line that goes back to the beginnings of creation and continues into the mists of the future. And on that line are a number of significant marks-these separate the past from the present from the future. And within each time zone-past, present and future-we can differentiate periods of time from points of time. For example, the 1980s gave us a period of rapid economic growth; black Monday was a point of sudden financial catastrophe.
How can this brief analysis help the international manager? Firstly, there is the link between past, present and future. In other words, historical performance should be a guide to the future, and the present ought to represent last year's forecast. So change-that which normally differentiates any two periods on our continuum-can be seen as a gradual evolution rather than a dramatic revolution.
Secondly, the use of a time-planning system, on which key points and periods are plotted, enables managers to organise their activities so that bottlenecks can be avoided and deadlines can be met. So stress, where the jobs to be done exceed the available time, can be reduced to an acceptable and productive level.

1.1  Discussion
Does your organisation live in the present? Does it change with the times?
Do you work in a stressful environment? Do you think that time management can reduce stress?

2. Listening
You are going to hear an extract from a meeting between Anna. Brian and Pete, the three partners of Softsys, a small company supplying business software. The company was established two years ago and after a period of rapid growth is trying to consolidate its market position.
As you listen, make notes of the tasks that are agreed and note the partner who is going to do the task.

Listening task
(A=Anna; P=Pete; B=Brian)
P: I think we all feel that things are getting a little out of control. We're pushing ourselves almost to breaking point and I'm worried that something's going to snap unless we take control of the situation.
B: Exactly. We have to start managing the business-rather than letting it manage us. So what can we do about it?
A: Well, the first thing we can do is to start planning. I mean up to now we have done everything by intuition, but I'd like to know where we plan to be five years from now.
B: That's good-a long-term plan. OK, Pete, are you prepared to start working on it?
P: I can make some notes and circulate them. Then we can discuss them.
A: Good.
P: Fine.
A: Now what about roles? I mean I know that we each have got our own specialist functions within the organisation and that we also function pretty well as a team, but perhaps we need a leader.
P: You mean like a managing director?
B: Yes, but I thought our philosophy was to keep a flat management structure.
A: Yes, I accept that we don't want to create a hierarchy, but I still think that it can help us if we choose a managing partner who has overall control.
P: Yes, I really don't think that will harm the relationship between us and I agree that it can help us to run the company more efficiently.
B: Well, I am not totally convinced, but I'm willing to be persuaded. As you two are keen on the idea, why don't you prepare a paper about what the management structure would be and the functions of the managing partner?
A: Well, I'd like to have a go at that. I'll prepare some notes and circulate them. Then we can discuss them at our next meeting. If that's OK with you, Brian?
P: Yeah, fine by me.
B: Well, we've talked about planning and managing. Now, what about improving the organisation? I think we need to look at how we can organise ourselves better.
A: Well, having a managing partner should help.
B: Of course, but we need to look at our own roles, too.
P: To identify areas of responsibility?
B: Yes, first the areas where each of us has the main responsibility and then the areas where we are involved, but not primarily responsible. Take purchasing, for example. We need to buy in goods-everything from machines down to plugs. We buy in machines when a customer has placed an order and then we check cashflow and consult the others. But we buy the smaller items without any consultation.
A: Oh, come on, we always discuss major purchases and the minor ones are made when we need to. We can't consult with each other for every bit of cable we buy.
B: I know we can't. But that's exactly why we need one person with responsibility for authorising purchases. Then we can consistently check where we can get the best value for money by putting one person in charge. And that person can reconcile the purchases made against the invoices that come in. It's simply a matter of streamlining the system-which must be in everyone's interest.
A: So, what do you suggest?
B: Well, I think we should each make a list of the major functions within the organisation. We've talked about purchasing. Then there's sales and after-sales service...
P: ... and finance.
B: Yes, and installation. Well, I'd like to see one person with primary responsibility for each area, just as we said for purchasing. And the others may have secondary responsibility for that area. So, I propose that I draw up a list of the primary areas or activities that we need to carry out, and then at the next meeting we decide who will have the primary responsibility for each. I'm sure it'll streamline our business.
A: So, where does that leave us?
P: With some homework to do and some key issues to discuss at our next meeting. By the way, when are we meeting?
A: Well, let's say that...

1. 本課主題
閱讀下面這篇由一位“商業醫生”撰寫的文章并就列出的問題進行討論。
成功的起因
精神分析家們通過深入病人的過去——通常是病人的童年時代——來給他們治病,試圖以此幫助他們了解現在的感覺和行為。公司顧問們試圖通過了解他們客戶的歷史和跟蹤記錄來找出失敗的根源或成功的起因。
從某些方面講,公司顧問們的工作有時很簡單,他們可以察看資產負債表和損益表來分析該公司的資產管理、盈利狀況和費用控制情況。他們可以跟蹤公司的歷史,從開始盈利的頭一件產品到現在的生產和服務規模。他們可以研究公司的組織結構、市場營銷和人事制度,甚至工廠和辦公室的布局等等。
然而,要正確指出一個公司失敗而另一個公司的原因常常并非易事。公司向外界尋求建議是因為從內部找不到答案。公司期冀咨詢人員能運用其豐富的經驗——或許就是他(她)以前所診斷過的類似病例來為公司找出癥結所在,開出使公司復蘇的良方,進而為公司推薦一種新的自下而上方式以保證他們未來的健康發展和繁榮。

1.1 討論問題
你們的公司是現代企業嗎?它隨著時代變化而變化嗎?你的工作環境壓力大嗎?你認為很好地管理時間能減輕這種壓力嗎?

—生詞與短語—
1.grapple with 與……搏斗,盡力解決
e.g. Some one tried to poach our market manager; she grappled with her moral dilemma.
有人企圖挖走我們的市場主管,面對這種道德難題,她進行了激烈的思想斗爭。
2.differentiate  加以區分
3.black Monday 黑色星期一,指1987年10月國際股票市場崩潰的日子。
4.catastrophe   大災難,大禍
e.g. The financial catastrophe initiated by the collapse of the stack market hit the country a deadly blow.
由股市崩潰引發的金融災難,使這個國家遭受了致命的打擊。
5.continuum  連續時間
6.dramatic 戲劇性的
7.exceed 超過
e.g. Supply exceeds demand. 供過于求

2. 聽力練習
—生詞與短語—
intuition 直覺
circulate 傳閱
philosophy 哲學,見解,觀點,信條
hierarchy 等級制度,統治集團,領導層  hierarchical
convince 使確信,說服 convince sb. of sth.
purchase 購置
plug 插頭
cashflow 現金流量,收入現款額
authorize 批準,準許,授權
reconcile 調解,使一致  reconciliation
invoice 發票
streamline 使合理化,使效率更高

你將聽到安娜、布賴恩和皮特之間一次會議的摘要,他們 是Softsys公司的三個合伙人。該公司是一家提供商業應用軟件的小公司,兩年前成立,經過一度快速增長后,打算鞏固其市場位置。

—注解及樣例—
1. out of control失去控制
e.g. Measures must be taken to have the overheated economy cooled down. Otherwise, it would be out of control.
如果再不采取果斷措施給過熱的經濟降溫,經濟局面會失控。
2. to snap斷裂,垮掉
e.g. The twigs snapped under the snow.雪把樹枝壓斷了。
Our manager works too hard. I'm afraid she will snap suddenly.
我們經理工作太認真,我真擔心哪天她的身體會垮掉。
3. intuition 直覺
e.g. My intuition told me to keep this company as our supplier.
直覺告訴我應當仍然以該公司為供貨商。
I've got an intuition that something has gone wrong.
憑直覺我感到出了問題。
4. to circulate 傳閱
e.g. The report will be circulated to all members.
該報告將在全體成員中傳閱。
5. to have a go at 躍躍欲試
e.g. The sales manager recently in power itched to have a go at the East Asian market.
新上任的銷售經理躍躍欲試,要進軍東亞市場。
6. to convince 說服
e.g. It took me a few weeks to convince my boss of the importance of training.
我花了幾個星期才說服老板培訓的重要性。
At last I felt convinced that I was again on the wrong track.
我最后確信自己考慮問題的思路又錯了。
to persuade 說服,是指勸誘(induce)他人相信或去做某事
e.g. he persuaded me to buy that huge 30-inch TV set.
他勸我買了那臺30寸的大電視。
&大致說來,persuade與人的意志(will)或感情(feeling)相關,convince是與人的理智(reason)或理解力(understanding)相關。
7. to authorise授權
e.g. She has been authorized to sign the contract.
她被授權簽訂合同。
8. to reconcile 使……相吻合,核對,調和
e.g. He failed to reconcile statement with the fact.
他難以作出符合事實的陳述。
to reconcile a checkbook with a bank statement
按銀行結帳單核對支票薄。
I can't reconcile the two extreme views.
我無法調和這兩種極端的觀點。
9. to streamline 精簡,使……更有效率
e.g. The leadership had streamlined the plant organization. As a result, the output doubled and the overheads fell drastically as well.
由于領導精簡了工廠機構,不僅產量翻了一番,而且大大縮減了企業經營費用。
10. to invoice 給……開發票
e.g. The seller may invoice the goods at $70 per ton.
賣方可以每噸70美元開具該貨的發票。
Invoice us after the shipment.
請在裝船后給我公司開具發票。
名詞——發票
e.g. Enclosed is our invoice in triplicate for Art. No.1204.
隨函附上1204號貨物的發票一式三份。
11. in everybody's interest 符合大家的利益
12. fine by me 我覺得沒問題
e.g. Is the newly bought cream OK with you?
新買的雪花膏用著行嗎?
Yes, fine by me. 我覺得還不錯。
13. mailshot 郵寄廣告

聽力譯文:
P:我想我們都感到有些控制不了局面了。我們都在盡力,快要堅持不住了。我擔心,如果我們控制不住局面是會出事的。
B:說的對。我們應當開始控制工作而不是讓工作控制我們。我們該怎么做呢?
A:嗯,首先,我們可以開始制定計劃。我是指到目前為止我們一直憑直覺做事,但我想知道我們今后5年的發展目標。
B:很好,一個長期計劃。皮特,你準備做這件事嗎?
P:我可以準備一份草稿,咱們傳閱一下,然后再討論。
A:好。
P:行。
A:怎么角色?我指的是,雖然在公司里我們每個人各盡所能,配合也很好,但我們需要一個領導者。
P:你指執行董事?
B:對,不過我原以為我們的原則是保持一種平等管理結構。
A:我也認為我們不應制造等級,但我仍認為如果我們選出一個合伙人,由他控制全局會對工作有好處。
P:對,我想這不會影響我們之間的關系,反而能使我們更有效地開展業務。
B:嗯,你們還沒說服我,但我愿意再聽聽你們的意見。既然你們倆對此很熱心,何不準備一份文件來講一下今后的管理結構和主管的任務?
A:嗯,我試一下。我會準備一份草稿,傳閱一下,然后在下次會上討論。布賴恩,你覺得怎么樣?
P:我沒意見。
B:好,我們已談了計劃和管理問題。現在討論一下如何改進機構吧。我想我們應該考慮一下如何更好地組織。
A:嗯,先出招待董事肯定會有幫助。
B:當然,但我們應該也想一下自己的位置。
P:劃分責任?
B:對。行劃出我們每個人員的主要職責,再劃出相關的次要責任范圍。拿進貨作例子,我們需要其他負責人商量。但買進小東西時,就不必磋商。
A:好啦,凡大件物品的進貨我們總是討論,有必要時小物品的進貨也講座但我們總不能買每一寸電纜都先進行討論吧。
B:我知道這不可能。正因為這樣,我們才需要一個人總體負責購貨。通過安排這樣一個負責人,我們就可不斷研究如何把錢用在刀刃上。由這個人來進行核查,以確?;跤敕⑵畢轡嗆?。簡化體制對每個人都有好處。
A:你有何建議?
B:我建議每個人都列出公司的主要任務。我們已談了購貨,再談一下銷售和售后服務……
P:……還有財務。
B:對,還有安裝。我想看到在每個領域有一個負主要職責,就像我們剛才所說的采購那樣。其他人可以對那一領域負次要職責。我提議由我來起草一份主要領域或我們需開展的工作的清單,然后在下次會議上決定在每一領域由誰負主要職責。我相信這肯定會使咱們做起生意來簡化一些。
A:那還剩下什么要我們來做?
P:得做些準備工作,還要列出我們下次會議上要討論的問題。順便說一下,咱們下次什么時候開會?
A:嗯,就定在……

 


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